The initial quantitative analysis explored individuals’ volunteering in the years between 1996 and 2011. The aim was to uncover common patterns of continuity in volunteering behaviour or change over time (volunteering trajectory). The analysis then looked at how differences in patterns of volunteering behaviour related to the characteristics of the people following these trajectories.
The British Household Panel survey (BHPS) and Understanding Society (US) survey are related longitudinal survey’s that ran from 1991-2009 and from 2010 respectively. The US continues the BHPS survey questions with the same people for the year 2011.They aim to understand social and economic change in Britain and the UK. The data we have used came from waves 6 to 18 of the BHPS linked with wave 2 of the US.
An appropriate survey question was asked every other year throughout the BHPS, a similar question is asked within the US in its second wave. The data used comes from the years:
1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2011
The distributions of years are not balanced due to the crossover period between the BHPS and US.
Method of analysis
Individuals’ volunteering trajectories were analysed using sequence analysis and cross-sectional exploration.
Sequence analysis (optimal matching) was used to explore the volunteering trajectories present. Hierarchical clustering of these trajectories was then used to group together the people that follow similar volunteering trajectories and hence identify the most prominent patterns of volunteering trajectories.
The cross-sectional exploration used frequency tables and graphs. The aim was to identify similarities and differences in the demographics and attitudes of people that followed the different identified volunteering trajectories.
The insight into volunteering trajectories and the people that followed these trajectories were then written up into narratives. These narratives were then used to make comparisons to the general population and to people that did not volunteer.
Volunteers were considered to be people from the BHPS/US that between 1996 and 2011 undertook unpaid voluntary work (at least once a month) or cared for a non-relative that did not live with them for at least one year.
In comparison to people that did not ‘volunteer’, individuals volunteering between 1996 and 2011 were older, more highly educated, were more likely to be married, and a higher proportion were women.
Attitudes also tended to differ between people that volunteered and those that did not. For example volunteers were more likely to be interested in and feel that political beliefs were important, and have a higher level of trust towards other people
Three general patterns of volunteering trajectories were initially uncovered:
- Off-one volunteers: People who only volunteered for short periods of time, only once between 1996 and 2011
- Continuous volunteers: People who volunteered for the majority of the years considered between 1996 and 2011
- Late starters: People who did not volunteer initially but continued once they had started
The demographics and attitudes of people that volunteered were looked at within different years. The date from which the data is taken is displayed within Table 1. This enabled comparisons to be made between the type of people that were classified as ‘one-off’, ‘continuous’ or ‘late starters’.
From this cross-sectional analysis it can be seen that there are considerable differences in the ages of people who follow different volunteering trajectories. This finding lead to further analysis being undertaken based on people of similar ages. The age ranges looked at were people in there 20’s, 40’s and 60’s. This further analysis aimed to assess the effect of age on the volunteering trajectories uncovered.
It was found that people in their 20’s had two volunteering trajectories: ‘one offs’ and ‘continuous’. People in there 40’s or 60’s fell into three types of volunteering trajectories: ‘one-offs’, ‘continuous’ and ‘long term’ volunteers.
Long term volunteers consisted of people that either starter volunteering later on in the time period (similar to those within the original analysis), starter early on in the time period considered and then stopped or volunteered for long periods on time in the middle of the time period considered.
Discussion of results
The majority of people fell into the ‘one-off’ volunteering trajectory – only volunteering once. These people tended to be younger and were the most likely to be employed when compared to the other two trajectories. They were also the least likely to feel financially comfortable which might imply a time/finance capacity issue contributing to these differences. ‘One-off’ volunteers were least likely to believe that people could be trusted and less likely to think political beliefs were important to who they are.
This cross-sectional analysis of demographic and attitudinal data does not consider the complex combination of influences underpinning attitudes and behaviours in volunteering. For example people who are ‘one-off’ volunteers are most likely to not feel financially comfortable. However we do not know whether there is a relationship between ‘one-off’ volunteers feeling financially comfortably and ‘one-off’ volunteers actually being financially comfortable. Further, more complex analysis is needed to uncover these associations, and how they relate to volunteering behaviour.